Penitentes, An Otherworldly Wonder


Lara Vimercati and Jack Darcy, two graduate students, at the edge of a penitente field on a Chilean volcano where researchers unexpectedly found algae. Steven K. Schmidt

Thanks to JoAnna Klein for bringing this question, and another Chilean wonder, to our attention:

If Algae Clings to Snow on This Volcano, Can It Grow on Other Desolate Worlds?

Scientists were surprised to find something living on the sterile heights of this Chilean volcano.


The penitentes are thought to result from an unusual mix of wind, temperature fluctuations and the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Steve Schmidt

In Chile’s Atacama Desert, Volcan Llullaillaco is Mars on Earth — or about as close to it as you can get. At 22,000 feet above sea level, it’s the second highest active volcano on Earth. Most of the mountain is a barren, red landscape of volcanic rock and dust, with thin, dry air, intense sunlight and winds that will blow your tent down the mountain.

While the ground can heat up to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, air temperatures rarely reach above freezing. When snow falls, it turns to gas just as it hits the earth. Occasionally, snow can collect in windblown banks, which then melt into icy spires up to 16 feet tall. The Spaniards called these “nieves penitentes,” penitent ones, because they look like hooded monks doing penance.


Steve Schmidt

These conditions high up on the volcano made it seem about as lifeless as Mars. But a team of researchers led by Steven K. Schmidt, a microbiologist at the University of Colorado Boulder who studies extreme life, have discovered microbes living in and around the penitentes at 17,300 feet above sea level, about one thousand feet above the point at which vegetation stops on Volcan Llullaillaco.

The scientists’ descriptions, published recently in the journal Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, exemplify how life on Earth consistently pushes our expected limits — and may even offer clues to how or where life could exist in similar environments elsewhere in the solar system.

Dr. Schmidt thought the volcano might be an ideal place to study the limits of life on Earth after he heard about three children unearthed there in 1999. The 500-year-old mummies were perfectly preserved without embalming agents.

The mummies when buried were “huge bags of microbes,” full of water. That they hadn’t decayed suggested the conditions deep beneath the volcano’s soil were constantly too cold and dry for any life to function.

But what about closer to the surface, where environmental conditions vary?

Dr. Schmidt knew microbes had been found in the surface tephra, or volcanic soil, of the same volcano, as well as a nearby one at slightly lower elevations. But little was known about the summits or penitentes.

By discovering what conditions supported patches of life among this mountain’s sterile heights, perhaps he could truly understand life’s limits.

In March 2016, the team hoped to collect soil samples from the summit of Llullaillaco. But after a week’s journey from the coast to the desert, poor weather pushed them to explore the volcano’s penitente fields instead. This was not the volcano’s most extreme environment, but it was still quite harsh and far higher up than where it seemed life could persist…

Read the whole story here.

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